In July, Traditional Cartography in African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, edited by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, was sent to the University of Chicago Press. The Press forwarded it to two independent readers who both strongly recommended publication. One reader wrote: "The work is of an unusual degree of originality. Some of it represents material never before studied . . . the rest represents the first comprehensive survey of the material, together with a penetrating analysis and interpretation at the highest level of scholarship." With this encouraging assessment, the volume was presented to the University of Chicago Press Board in December, and the Board heartily endorsed its publication. With Board approval, production can begin in 1997, and publication will be in 1998.
The volume covers a wide geographic and cartographic range and, perhaps more than any other volume, exemplifies the broad definition of map that the History has embraced. Because there are very few pre-contact artifacts, authors have examined a wide variety of sources to shed light on traditional mapping. These sources include the archaeological record, European textual accounts of native mapping, extant maps and copies of native maps made during or shortly after contact, ethnographic studies involving mapmaking, and, in a few cases, modern mapping by indigenous peoples.
Map of Don Miguel Damain's properties, ca. 1576; a small map-register on nativepaper. Don Miguel, a Nahua noble, is shown seated at the bottom surrounded by his family. Two house lots and seven fields are depicted. Size of the original 38.5 x 39.3 cm. By permission of the Edward E. Ayer Collection,The Newberry Library, Chicago (Ayer MS 1900).
Other Volume News
With volume 2.3 going into production in early 1997, we have turned some of our attention to volume 3, The European Renaissance. It promises to hold many challenges, not least of which will be how to present the overwhelming amount of relevant and exciting material in a single volume. Editor David Woodward and the entire staff look forward to renewing contacts with all volume 3 authors and coordinators in 1997. It is clear that everyone—those who are writing and those who are using the History—would benefit if we could produce the volumes more quickly. In an effort to speed up publication, we have asked Mark Monmonier of Syracuse University to co-edit volume 6, The Twentieth Century. Dr. Monmonier is eminently qualified to evaluate and analyze the massive changes that have occurred in cartography during this century, and we are pleased to welcome him as co-editor. We are still seeking co-editors for volumes 4 and 5. This parallel, rather than serial approach to publishing the volumes will ensure that the series is completed in the most timely fashion.
Interview with G. Malcolm Lewis
G. Malcolm Lewis is co-editor of volume 2.3 in the History of Cartography series and wrote "Maps Made by North American Indians and Inuit" for the volume. Formerly a Reader at the University of Sheffield, Mr. Lewis has received numerous awards and fellowships for research interests that include the historical perception of landscape, native American mapping, and cartographic communication. He currently resides in Sheffield, England.
What do you mean by multiple perspectives?
Well, for example, in the case of North America, there are at least two cultures, the native one and the western. Most of the writers in volume 2.3 have western orientations, yet they are writing about indigenous people. There are two perspectives then without a word being written. Even within a western, academic orientation, there are different disciplinary perspectives: the anthropological, political, and psychological, for example.
What contribution does volume 2.3 make?
It is a first! Nothing like it has been written since Adler's 1910 contribution on indigenous maps, which was in Russian and largely closed to most western readers. This volume not only fills a major gap in the global history of cartography, but hopefully will stimulate an awareness of maps in native cultures, especially by cultural anthropologists, archaeologists, and native people themselves.
What will this new awareness accomplish?
If my own work is any indication, the vast majority of native peoples have failed to see the significance of their own cartographic heritage. A new awareness could help preserve traditional world views that are quickly disappearing as indigenous peoples attempt to satisfy and communicate with non-natives in western formats. I also believe that many of these maps can be sources of evidence for a wide variety of scholarly disciplines showing, for example, trading sites and networks, geopolitical systems, and how native peoples have cognitively structured their worlds.
Editor David Woodward had a number of speaking engagements during 1996 and enjoyed meeting and talking with many friends of the Project. His travels took him to various libraries, universities, and map societies. As always, David is available to speak at map society meetings and other cartographic gatherings. He especially enjoys giving Saturday morning workshops on topics such as indigenous cartography, Italian map publishing, the history of the History of Cartography Project, wax engraving, the problems of cartometric analysis and correlating coastlines, or the use and misuse of physical evidence such as ink and paper. Please contact him directly to arrange speaking engagements or workshops.
This year brought closure to some of David's longstanding projects. After years of planning, research, and effort, he published the Catalogue of Watermarks in Italian Maps, ca. 1540-1600; Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors & Consumers (The 1995 Panizzi Lectures); and the Cultural Map of Wisconsin: A Cartographic Portrait of the State (with Robert C. Ostergren, Onno Brouwer, Steven Hoelscher, and Joshua G. Hane).
Works in press or in preparation include "Maps as Material Culture," for the Yale-Smithsonian Seminar on Material Culture; "Roger Bacon's Geography" for a book on Roger Bacon; "Geography," for the Cambridge History of Science; and "History of Maps," for the World English edition of Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia.
David will be on sabbatical during the Spring semester of 1997 and looks forward to devoting additional time to editing and research.
Other Staff News
Our illustrations editor of seven years, Christina Dando, became a lecturer in the UW-Madison geography department this fall. Her position at the History of Cartography Project was filled by Kristen Overbeck, a graduate student in art history.
We hired a full-time project administrator to replace Veronica Cid, whose limited-term position expired last summer. Beth Freundlich started in September and has expertly taken control of our finances, accounts, budgets, and office management. 1996 also provided us with new student hourly help, Drew Ross (graduate student in geography), and much appreciated research and editorial volunteer work from Howard Schwartz, MD, JD.
In spite of these personnel changes, we were delighted to maintain continuity in two key staff positions. Jude Leimer has been with the project since 1982 and continues as Managing Editor; Margo Kleinfeld is in her second year as reference editor.
1996 brought several financial developments that encourage us as we complete volume 2.3 and look forward to future volumes. After more than a year of pursuing private corporation and foundation funding, the Project received a substantial grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. With this generous support, we can take full advantage of the matching funds available on our National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) grants. The National Science Foundation (NSF) continues to provide major federal funding for the History of Cartography Project as well.
We would like to extend heartfelt thanks to all of the individuals who supported the Project so generously in 1996. We appreciate not only the financial contribution, but also the expression of confidence in our work. That means a great deal to us.
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